Wednesday, November 15, 2017

Student Visit HS 125 ATA 30 Ice and Rain

Today we have another day of student's visit. Although it is a dead aircraft, with many parts missing, it still help the the students to virtualize the aircraft systems and the operation.

1. ATA 30 - anti-ice
a. Ice detector - rotary type. Brief students how it work.
- Control switched and indication in the cockpit
The serrate piece turn freely when no ice



b. Deicer system  with deicing panel in the wing leading edge.

Perforated wing leading edge allows the chemical to seep put and blown to the top of the wing to remove ice.

wing with perforated leading edge



Wing and Tail Anti Ice Switch - On/OFF for continuous operation. Timer provided for a selected timer operation

c. Wing illumination light.  

Sunday, November 12, 2017

My Aircraft Visit HS125 ATA 30 Pitot and Windshield

Last week I went to visit the aircraft, to prepare for the students visit.

I am sharing some of the pictures.. I was doing the ATA 30 Ice and Rain Protection.

The visit was to let the students see the systems in an aircraft.

Ice and rain protection includes the following topics...
- ice detector
- wing anti- ice
- windshield anti ice.
- pitot static anti ice.

A. Ice Detector
I use to work on Boeing Aircraft. There was no ice detector. HS 125 has it. It is using a rotary type. Here is the picture of the detector.

ice detector - rotary type
The serrated piece rotates freely if no icing. When icing, the force to rotate increases, and a s/w is actuated.

Switches to turn On /OFF the wind Screen Anti Ice.

Tuesday, July 4, 2017

Module 13

Next semester, I will be teaching part of module 13, for the following topics...
- Hydraulic , Landing Gear and Flight Control.
- Pneumatic , Aircondition and Vacuum system.
- Engine - Starting and Ignition
- Fuel and Fire Protection.

The  syllabus for EASA are as follows...

13.7 Flight Controls (ATA 27)
(a) Primary controls: aileron, elevator, rudder, spoiler;
Trim control;
Active load control;
High lift devices;
Lift dump, speed brakes;
System operation: manual, hydraulic, pneumatic;
Artificial feel, Yaw damper, Mach trim, rudder limiter, gust locks.
Stall protection systems.
-
-
2
(b) System operation: electrical, fly by wire.
-
-
3

13.11 Air Conditioning and Cabin Pressurisation (ATA 21)
13.11.1 Air Supply
-
-
2
Source of air supply including engine bleed, APU and ground chart
13.11.2 Air Conditioning
Air Conditioning Systems;
-
-
2
Air cycle and vapour cycle machines;
-
-
3
Distribution systems;
-
-
1
Flow, temperature and humidity control system;
-
-
3
13.11.3 Pressurisation
Pressurisation systems;
-
-
3
Control and indicating including control and valves;
Cabin pressure controllers;
13.11.4 Safety and warning devices
Protection and warning devices.
-
-
3


13.12 Fire Protection (ATA2 6)
(a) Fire and smoke detection and warning systems;
-
-
3
Fire extinguishing systems; System tests.
(b) Portable fire extinguisher

-
-
1


13.13 Fuel Systems (ATA 28)
System layout;
-
-
1
Fuel tanks;
-
-
1
Supply systems;
-
-
1
Dumping, venting and draining;
-
-
1
Cross-feed and transfer;
-
-
2
Indications and warnings;
-
-
3
Refuelling and defueling;
-
-
2
Longitudinal balance fuel systems;





-
-
3
13.14 Hydraulic Power (ATA 29)
System lay-out
-
-
1
Hydraulic fluids;
-
-
1
Hydraulics reservoirs and accumulators;
-
-
1
Pressure generation, electrical, mechanical, pneumatic;
-
-
3
Emergency pressure generation;
-
-
3
Filters;
-
-
1
Pressure control;
-
-
3
Power distribution;
-
-
1
Indication and warning systems;
-
-
3
Interface with other systems;
-
-
3


13.15 Ice and Rain Protection (ATA 30)
Ice formation, classification and detection;
-
-
2
Anti-icing systems: electrical, hot air and chemical;
-
-
2
De-icing systems: electrical, hot air, pneumatic, chemical;
-
-
3
Rain repellent;
-
-
1
Probe and drain heating;
-
-
3
Wiper systems;
-
-
1


13.16 Landing Gear (ATA 32)
Construction, shock absorbing;
-
-
1
Extension and retraction systems: normal and emergency
-
-
3
Indications and warnings;
-
-
3
Wheel, brakes, antiskid and autobraking;
-
-
3
Tyres
-
-
1
Steering
Air ground sensing
-
-
-
-
3
3






13.18 Pneumatic/Vacuum (ATA 36)
System lay-out
-
-
2
Sources; engine/APU, compressors, reservoir, ground supply
-
-
2
Pressure control;
-
-
3
Distribution;
-
-
1
Indicators and warnings;
-
-
3
Interfaces with other systems;
-
-
3


13.19 Water / Waste (ATA 38)
-
-
2
Water system lay-out, supply, distribution, servicing and draining;
Toilet system lay-out, flushing and servicing


14.1 Turbine Engines
(a) Constructional arrangement and operation of turbojet, turbofan, turboshaft and turbopropeller engines;
-
-
1
(b) Electronic Engine control and fuel metering systems (FADEC).
-
-
2

14.2 Engine Indicating Systems
-
-
2  UNDER TURBINE ENG/ INDICATION
AJB 30503
Exhaust gas temperature/Interstage turbine temperature systems;
Engine speed;
Engine Thrust Indication: Engine Pressure Ratio, engine turbine discharge pressure or jet pipe pressure systems;
Oil pressure and temperature;
Fuel pressure, temperature and flow;
Manifold pressure;
Engine torque;
Propeller speed.



14.3 Starting and Ignition Systems
-
-
2
Operation of engine start systems and components;
Ignition systems and components;
Maintenance safety requirements



Thursday, April 20, 2017

Reading The Wiring Manual

I am grateful to http://www.aircraftmech.com/ for writing a good practical guide to read the wiring diagram.

I include the snap shot of the web page to help readers to make an easy reference.

http://www.aircraftmech.com/

Tuesday, April 11, 2017

Maint Work/ Replace wire

Here I insert reference for maintenance work.

The task selected is replacing wire on an engine...


Please refer to the quoted web page for more details...

The link is.... http://www.aircraftmech.com/

Monday, February 13, 2017

Structure Monitoring

The DCAM syllabus as in the AN1101 includes the topic on Structure monitoring (damage tolerance monitoring) under ATA 45, in the following modules:

1. Module 11A - Fixed Wing/ Turbine    Level 2
2. Module 12 - Rotary Wing  . Level 2
3. Module 13 - Avionics  -  Level 3


One of the issues involved are the reference documents, as the subject is relatively new, thus reference books are not readily available.

I had divided the topic of structuring monitoring into three (3) sub topics:
- Structural Health Monitoring
- Aircraft Integrated Maintenance System
- Health and Usage Monitoring

A quick google search reveals some results:

A. Structural Health Monitoring
a. Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structural_health_monitoring 
b. Structural health monitoring - ‎Balageas - Cited by 40
c. Powerpoint on Life Management of Aircraft


Note:
1. B777 - no mention of structural maintenance in the MM ATA45.

Tuesday, November 29, 2016

NEW AVIONICS REFERENCES

One of the problems in learning the new avionics, i.e ATA 42, 44, 45 and 46 is to get a suitable reference or notes. For that reason, I rely on the internet to get the note from Airbus and Boeing. In most cases, I prefer to search for A380 note.

Here are the example:
A. ATA 42 - Integrated Modular Avionics

a. I will search for "A380 ATA 42 note"

This is what I get....


The information is enough to get me started.

Tuesday, August 16, 2016

AFDX and IMA

IMA or integrated modular avionics is one of the four new avionics ATA for modern aircaft. IMA or integrated modular avionics is under the ATA 42, used by A380 and later aircraft.

AFDX is the data communication network utilized in the IMA system. Of course, there are other data network, such as ARINCS 429, 629 utilised in the IMA system, but AFDX was specifically designed to meet the IMA requirement. The AFDX is specified in the ARINC 664 part 7.

To assist in learning about AFDX, I include some links.

a. PDF powerpoint... at http://www.afdx.com/pdf/AFDX_Training_October_2010_Full.pdf

b. Youtube Video ///

Wednesday, May 25, 2016

ATA 44 CABIN SYSTEM

I faced challenges to conduct courses on the ATA 44.

To start with, this is a new ATA, and not many references are available. If you were to check the aircraft's ATA, there are not many aircraft types using ATA 44.  This forced me to select A380 as the reference module.

The reference are readily available in the internet.

This as an example..

 I was using four reference to prepare the course...

1. Airbus training manual
2. Airbus Maintenance Manual
3. Flight Crew Manual
4. Crew guides



Wednesday, March 16, 2016

TRANSFORMER

Transformer is included to module 3. The syllabus is as follows...

3.15 Transformers (L2)
Transformer construction principles and operation;
Transformer losses and methods for overcoming them;
Transformer action under load and no-load conditions;
Power transfer, efficiency, polarity markings;
Calculation of line and phase voltages and currents;
Calculation of power in a three phase system;
Primary and Secondary current, voltage, turns ratio,power, efficiency;
Auto transformers.

I have included a short youtube video, It is noted that the video does not cover the whole syllabus...





I intend to add more contents

Friday, February 26, 2016

Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA)

This is one of the 4 new ATA chapters. The IMA is under 42.

A. INTRODUCTION

The DCAM syllabus gave a lengthy write up. I believe, this was done as the subjects were new and not many were familiar. I would divide the syllabus into three groups..

1. Network system and Components.
2. Core System
3. Typical system

However in teaching and learning the subject, the approach is changed slightly. There are some topics which as not within the syllabus, but becomes necessary in order to understand the IMA. The topics are:
- Circuit and Packet switching.
- Ethernet
- ARINC 429 and 629

A. Circuit Switching and Packet switching, -
A video can explain the


- The following is about ethernet.
Yesterday, we did the first quiz, 1. AFDX uses the following two concepts: - virtual links - BAG - band allocation gap Write a short description on the above topics.

Thursday, November 12, 2015

Update

I had update the links to include

- study guide

- Questions

- Other links

Friday, January 30, 2015

Automatic dependent surveillance – broadcast

I remember the day that MH370 was missing, and until today there are trace of it.

On 30 Jan 2015, the aircraft was officially announced as "loss" and the appropriate insurance claim may be made.



Some of the Sources for the above topic are:

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automatic_dependent_surveillance_%E2%80%93_broadcast


2. http://partners.decisionbriefs.com/rotor-and-wing/article/freeflight-systems-ads-b-university/

--

Papers:AFDX: The Next-Generation Interconnect for Avionics Subsystems by Condor Tech (pdf)

This was was obtained through an online magazine http//www aviationtoday com/


Thursday, December 25, 2014

Three Phase Induction Motor

UNDER EDITING

Students should be able to perform the following:

A- explain the construction of the ac induction motor.
B- explain the concept of rotating field and how it is created.
C- explain the working of the rotor
D- calculate the speed of rotating field .
E- calculate slip speed ans speed of the rotor


Many of my students find it difficult to understand the AC induction motors.

It does not matter whether it is 3 phases or 2 phase motor, because the principle is the same.

It needs the understanding of 2 concepts:

- the rotating magnetic field
- the rotor

It is the interaction of the rotating field and the rotor will cause the rotor to rotate.

B. Creation Of Rotating Field
This is better explained by video used by this video



Monday, December 22, 2014

DC Generator Overhaul


UNDER  EDITING




Testing The Armature
There are 2 basic test:
- Using meter
- Using Growler

1. Test Using Gowler
Growler is like the primary winding of a transformer. When the armature is positioned on the growler, the armature is acting like the secondary of the transformer. However, please take note that the secondary winding of the armature is open circuit, so no current flows in the armature windings but there are the induced voltage

a. Check for short circuit.


Tuesday, June 3, 2014

DC Generators and Motors

I had chosen an old film produced by US Department of Defense in 1961. I like it because the video was made with the specific purpose, that was to train the staff. Please view the video below...

 The following topics were discussed...

1. The theory of .. Generation of EMF through the movement of a conductor in a field of magnetic flux.

2. A simple generator with a single loop.

3. The formula of the instantaneous EMF, e= BlV Sin The angle.

4. The operation of an armature.

5. Converting the AC within the armature to DC output.

6. Making the DC output smoother by adding additional poles and loops.

7. Prevention of sparking by positioning the brushes in the neutral plain.

8. The Armature Reaction and its effects.

9. Creation of magnetic fields and different methods to excite the field, separately excited and self excited.

10. The different way the fields are connected, series, parallel and compund.

Thursday, February 6, 2014

Transformer Module 3:15

The Part 66 document list the content of the syllabus.

The contents can be summarized as follws:


Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Module 5.14 Electromagnetic Environment

I am consolidating the modules in one blog. This is done to enable easier searching by readers...

I had prepare 18 slides for the topic shared below:


MODULE 5  SLIDES

CHAPTER 12 – ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT


Slide 1 - Syllabus as Per Part 66

Electromagnetic Environment Syllabus (part 66) (Level – L2)   
Influence of the following phenomena on maintenance practices for electronic system:
EMC-Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMI-Electromagnetic Interference
HIRF-High Intensity Radiated Field
Lightning/lightning protection  

Slide 2 WHY THE INCREASED CONCERN IN RECENT YEARS?  BECAUSE:
- Greater dependence on electrical and electronic systems for continued safe flight.
- Reduced electromagnetic shielding due greater use of composite materials.
- Increased susceptibility of electrical and electronic systems to HIRF due to increased data bus and processor operating speeds, higher density integrated circuits and cards, and greater sensitivities of electronic equipment;
- Expanded frequency usage, especially above 1 gigahertz (GHz);
Increased severity of the HIRF environment because of an increase in the number and radiated power of radio frequency (RF) transmitters; and
- Adverse effects experienced by some aircraft when exposed to HIRF.

Slide 3. ADVERSED EXPERIENCES
The experiences had proven the need consider the threat seriously.
Gross navigation error in a passenger aircraft in USA (from Newark to San Maarten) caused by a portable tv set used by a passenger.
Lap top used by a passenger affected the navigation equipment during aircraft take-off and landing.

4. ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT
Caused by transmission of electrical energy in space, e.g from radar, radio or TV.
Like current flowing in a wire, magnetic fields are created.
EMC – Electromagnetic Compatibility
Electromagnetic compatibility, or EMC means that a device is compatible with (i.e., no interference is caused by its electromagnetic (EM) environment and it does not emit levels of EM energy that cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in other devices in the vicinity.
All electric devices or installations influence each other when interconnected or close to each other. Eg your TV set, your GSM handset, your radio and nearby washing machine or electrical power lines.

5. The purpose of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is to keep all those side effects under reasonable control
Electromagnetic interference or EMI, also called radio frequency  interference or RFI. It is the disturbance that affects an electrical circuit due to either electromagnetic induction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source.
If avionics equipments are left unprotected, may cause serious flight safety issues.

6. EMI SOURCES (electromagnetic interference)
EMI IN AIRCRAFT
SOURCES OF EXTERNAL INTERFERENCES (note P168)
Two forms of interference
Conducted interference
Radiated interference
Sources of interferences
External Electrical Systems  e.g brushes, switches
Engines system – ignition system
 Inadequate bonding
Faulty static discharger/wicks

7. CONTROLLING THE INTERFERENCE
Well Located aerials – the interference to the comm/nav systems like ADF and VHF
Electronic equipment to be grounded and the related wires to be shielded and grounded.
 The lighting current flows through the outer skin and discharge to the extremity.
Bonding – all equipments to be bonded together, min R = 0.05 ohms.
Static Discharger – provide the low resistance path to the admosphere.

8. WHAT IS HIRF
It is High Intensity  Radiated Fields (electromagnetic energy)  external to the aircraft, of a strength sufficient to  have adverse affect on aircraft safety.
Note: The source of energy is external, exclude onboard system and static sources.

9. LIGHTNING
The high energy and high voltage can affect the aircraft hardware as well as the data.
The high transient discharge current can damage the skin of the aircraft and the bonding wires.

10. PROTECTION AGAINST LIGHTNING
Aircraft skin
Voltage and current protector at the equipment
Wire shielding

11 PERSONAL ELECTRONIC DEVICES (PED)
Personal Electronic equipments can produce signals that affect electronic equipments.
However there was no definitive proof of individual cases. Symptoms and failures went off when passengers were asked to switch PED.

12. The cautions were founded as some of the sensitive electronic wires run in close proximity to passengers.  
EXAMPLE OF HIRF CHECK




TYPICAL INSPECTION (P166)

13 REVIEW and QUESTIONING